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Weather 1900-2010


11 August 1900,

It was reported in the US that 26 die in record high temperatures of up to 107 degrees F.

30 December 1900,

In the UK over 50 people are dead as gales and flooding lash the country.

2 July 1900,

In New York Nearly 400 people die in one day during a heat wave, with Temperatures up to 110 degrees F (37 degrees C) in the shade.

8 September 1900,

US: Galveston Hurricane – The deadliest natural disaster in United States History, this Category Four Hurricane moved through Cuba into the Gulf of Mexico before slamming ashore in Galveston, Texas on September 8, 1900 killing 6,000 people.

3 April 1901,

Australia: The station buildings at Austral Downs were destroyed by flood.

12 November 1901,

In the UK, Great gales lash the country, nearly 200 die and many ships are lost.

1 May 1902, In India 416 die in Dacca Tornado.

3 September 1902,

In Austria a Landslide in Transcaucasia Kills 700.

25 September 1902,

Italy: Hundreds die when a tornado strikes the Catania region of Sicily.

22 March 1903,

In New York the US side of the Niagara Falls runs dry.

1 June 1903,

In the Us a Tornado kills 100 people and destroys Georgia town of Gainsvill.

10 September 1903,

In the UK a Great storm in the south of England causes Deaths and widespread damage.

22 January 1904,

In Norway several were killed and 12,000 were made destitute when a Hurricane swept the flames of a fire through the streets of Alesund destroying the town, severe weather prevailed, entailing intense suffering upon the homeless.

3 February 1904,

Freak Tidal wave wreaks havoc in England, elsewhere gale force winds and heavy rain have caused considerable damage to property and wide spread flooding has brought work to a stand still on farms all over the country.

21 November 1904.

In the East Indies 30,000 people were reported Destitute after a typhoon near the Philippine island of Mindanao.

5 February 1904,

In Chicago a Polar Bear freezes to death in the zoo after three nights of -15 degrees F.

15 March 1905,

In the UK 23 drown off Land’s End and 100 mph gales lash Edinburgh as storms grip the country.

27 August 1905.

In Ireland severe storms and flooding hit the country.

7 February 1906.

The pacific: Many were killed as a cyclone with 120 mph winds and 65 ft waves strike the Cook Islands.

8 February 1906.

The pacific: at least 10,000 were killed in Tahiti and neighbouring islands as a cyclone with 120 mph winds and 65 ft waves.

21 February 1906.

Colombia: A massive tidal wave kills 200.
28 March 1906.

New York: The State Meteorological Office says that the science of forecasting the weather is “within our grasp”

31 August 1906.

London: A heat wave brings Temperatures as high a 93 degrees Fahrenheit in the shade

4 September 1906.

London: Huge downpour ends the heat wave.

28 December 1906.

In Scotland 13 die when a train is derailed by snow on the track north of Dundee.

1 January 1907.

China: Four million people are feared to be starving owing to heavy rains and crop failure.

22 January 1907.

Dutch East Indies: About 1500 are reported people killed in a massive tidal wave.

24 January 1907.

Europe: Arctic weather grips the Continent; it is -30 degrees Fahrenheit in Austria.

23 May 1908,

Uganda: 4000 deaths from severe famine in Usoga region.

28 May 1908,

Canada: The Civic Dam on the Current river Bursts, causing great devastation.

24 June 1908,

Spain: 85 drowned when the steam boat Larache sinks in thick fog off Muros.

2 August 1908,

Canada: During a dry August 100 die as forest fires sweep parts of British Columbia.

1 February 1910,

Paris: The Red Cross starts providing assistance to flood victims.

20 February 1910,

UK: Hurricane-force winds cause several deaths and severe damage.

11 March 1910,

Wales: 500 children are swept away when a damn burst in the Rhondda Valley, 494 were rescued.

12 May 1910,

France: Halley’s Comet causes widespread concern and fears it is responsible for bad weather.

17 June 1910,

Central Europe: Severe floods in many countries; 1000 die in Hungary alone.

28 June 1910,

Germany: Zeppelin Deutschland is wrecked in a gale in the Teutoburg Forest.

12 August 1910,

London: Electric street lamps are replaced by 3000 high-pressure gas lamps giving more light in fog.

17 August 1910, (occurred from the 3rd to the 5th?)

Japan: 800 die in severe flooding.

25 October 1910,

Italy: Severe storms and a tidal wave lash the bay of Naples, killing 1000.


9 July 1911,

US: 652 deaths in a week are reported during a heat wave.

9 August 1911,

London: Hottest day in the capital for 70 years, 97 degree Fahrenheit in the shade.

16 August 1911,

Manchester: Reported that the city is living on food reserves and that famine threatens.

26 August 1911,

London: Reported that 2500 children have died in the recent heat wave.

28 August 1911,

London: Thousands Die in record heat wave and has set Britain’s death rate soaring. With a mortality rate for all ages of 19 per 1,000.

4 September 1911,

China: Reported that 100,000 have died in flooding along the Yangtse-Kiang River.

10 September 1911,

China: Floods are killing 300 people a day in Shanghai.

4 February 1912,

UK: Big Freeze takes hold as temperatures drop to as low as -35 degrees F.

8 February 1912,

Spain: Torrential rain brings widespread deaths and damage in severe floods.

14 February 1912,

London: Reported that 2 per cent of the capitals population are dying weekly from cold.

15 April 1912,

North Atlantic: More than 1,500 of the 2,340 passengers and crew of the Titanic died in the Icy waters of the North Atlantic, after the Great Ship sank within hours of hitting an Iceberg.
26 August 1912,

UK: Worst August rainfall on record, six inches in 12 hours causes floods that cut off Norwich and other towns.

22 September 1912,

Japan: Hundreds die as a typhoon sweeps the country.

14 June 1914,

London: Worst thunder storm in memory causes several deaths as four inches of rain falls in three hours.

7 January 1915,

London: The worst floods in the Upper Thames Valley since 1894 have driven over a thousand people into their upstairs rooms.

22 June 1919,

US: 200 are feared dead after a tornado strikes Fergus Falls, Minnesota.

27 November 1919,

A huge Meteor lands in lake Michigan, shaking buildings in nearby cities.


30 May 1920,

UK: At least 20 drown in serious floods in Lincolnshire.

4 June 1921,

US: 500 are feared dead as floods sweep eastern Colorado.

25 June 1921,

UK: Rainfall ends 100-day drought.

4 August 1921

Russia: Drought which wiped out the harvest causes famine.

28 January 1922,

Washington: 107 people die when the Knickerbocker Theatre collapses under the weight of snow.

8 January 1922,

UK: 108 mph winds are recorded in the scillies as a hurricane sweeps the English Coast.

22 May 1922,

London: The highest May temperatures for 50 years, 88 degrees F in the shade recorded.

2 January 1924,

Paris: The city’s main railway stations are closed as the level of the Seine rises due to flooding.

28 June 1924,

US: 300 are reported dead after a tornado swept through Colorado.

27 July 1924,

USSR: the country’s beet crop fails.

28 July 1924,

India: Many deaths are reported in flooding in the south of the country which has destroyed many villages.

13 August 1924,

China: As many as 50,000 are feared dead and two million homeless after severe floods.

14 August 1924,

Paris: Scientists claim that clouds around Mars prove it has the same atmosphere as Earth.

1 September 1924,

West Indies: A hurricane ravages the Virgin Islands, leaving 80 people feared dead.

2 October 1924,

USSR: Seven million people are reported suffering from famine after the failure of this year’s harvest.

24 January 1925,

US: 25 million people see a total eclipse of the sun; in the UK it is obscured by cloudy sky’s.

15 February 1925,

London: The Zoo in Regent’s Park announces it will install lights to cheer the animals during London fogs.

4 August 1925,

Eastern Europe: Flooding is reported in Czechoslovakia and Upper Silesia after heavy rainfall during the summer.

3 September 1925,

US: 14 die when the US Navy airship Shenandoah is wreaked in a storm over Caldwell, Ohio.

5 September 1925,

US: Water is sold by the gallon as drought grips the southern and south-western states.

2 November 1925,

UK: 20 are feared dead when a dam bursts and floods the Dolgarrog power station in North Wales.

9 February 1926,

London: Flooding occurs in the suburbs after 18 days of continuous rain.

28 May 1926,

Burma: 1,200 people are reported killed by a cyclone and tidal wave.

10 July 1926,

US: Lighting strikes a US Navy munitions dump, causing an explosion visible for 30 miles.

19 September 1926,

US: 1,500 are reported dead and nearly 40,000 homeless after a hurricane sweeps Florida.

23 September 1926,

US: Florida drafts it’s unemployed to help clear up after the hurricane.

8 November 1926,

Philippines: A typhoon devastates the Island of  Luzon, claiming a reported 175 lives.

28 January 1927,

Glasgow: Eight die and 10 are injured when the city is hit by a hurricane.

28 February 1927,

UK: Floods and gales hit the country, causing havoc.

2 May 1927,

Washington: President Coolidge calls for doubled relief efforts for flood-stricken areas of the southern US.

5 May 1927,

US: Floods in Mississippi now cover 23 square miles.

29 June 1927,

UK: For the first time in 200 years a total eclipse was seen in Britain. Because of patchy cloud many watchers were disappointed, but others in Northern England, including the Astronomer-Royal at Giggleswick in Yorkshire, were able to see the total eclipse.  Totality lasted for less than half a minute; But lucky observers got a good view of the glowing corona around the Sun when it was obscured by the Moon. They also saw a “prominence of incandescent gas, like a reddish arch on the edge of the moon. Its height has been calculated at 50,000 miles.

1 August 1927,

UK: The Bank Holiday is the wettest for many years.

10 August 1927,

US: Astronomers claim the Universe is 192 quadrillion miles wide.

17 August 1927,

USSR: 10,000 reported homeless as hurricane destroys 22 Siberian villages.

18 August 1927,

France: Forest fires sweep the South of France.

1 September 1927,

Poland: Floods in Galicia kill up to 200 people, leaving a reported 15,000 homeless.

14 September 1927,

Japan: 3,000 are reported killed when a tidal wave hits Kiu-Siu Island.

22 September 1927,

Rome: Pope Pius XI gives $100,000 for flood victims in the southern US.

24 September 1927,

UK: This Summer was the worst since 1879 with up to 80 percent more rain than normal.

29 September 1927,

US: A five minute tornado in St. Louis kills 69 and injures 600.

25 December 1927,

UK A white Christmas as Britain is swept by freezing blizzards.

31 December 1927,

UK: Food supplies are air-dropped into villages cut off by snow.

6 January 1928,

UK: The Themes bursts its banks today, flooding low-lying districts of London, drowning 14 people including four young sisters in their basement homes. Hundreds more have been made homeless along the length of the grey, swollen river. The vaults of the Palace of Westminster were flooded. The usually dry moat of the Tower of London was water filled once more. Damage to property was extensive. Twelve Landseer paintings were badly damaged at the Tate Gallery, although the Turner Collection was saved. The cause of the disaster was the much-feared combination of a sudden of a sudden thaw and a high tide.

7 January 1928,

London: Telephone lines are cut off by floodwaters of the Thames.

12 February 1928,

UK: 11 are killed as a gale sweeps across Britain.

11 March 1928,

UK: Blizzards sweep Britain; it is -9 degrees Celsius (16F) in London.

13 March 1928,

US: 300 die and 700 are missing when a dam bursts near Los Angles.

17 April 1928,

China: 470 are reported dead when a coal mine floods in Fushung.

27 May 1928,

Arctic: Italian Umberto Nobile’s airship crashes into the Ice after flying over the North Pole.

12 July 1928,

Arctic: Umberto Nobile and his crew of the airship Italia are finally rescued, by a Soviet Icebreaker.

6 September 1928,

US: Lake Okeechobee Hurricane – Carved a path of destruction throughout the Atlantic, and over the north shore of Lake Okeechobee during the period from September 6th to September 20th, 1928. This particular hurricane, which had a central pressure of 27.43 inches, was fifth all time to strike the United States in terms of intensity. It was responsible for an estimated 2,500 deaths, and some $25 million dollars in damage (equivalent to $300 million 1990 U.S. dollars). Now ranks behind Galveston as the second deadliest natural disaster in United States History.

15 September 1928,

Caribbean: A hurricane sweeping through the West Indies kills a reported 300 on the Island of Guadeloupe.

18 September 1928,

US: between 200 and 400 are reported killed when the hurricane strikes Florida.

5 December 1929,

UK: 19 people drown at sea and seven are killed on land as a 94 mph hurricane sweeps across Britain.

1930- 1939

12 January 1930,

Atlantic: 23 die when the Royal Navy tug St. Genny sinks in a gale off Ushant.

13 January 1930,

China: Two million are reported to have died of starvation; famine threatens millions more.

20 January 1930,

Philippines: 14 towns are devastated in a typhoon.

3 March 1930,

France: 200 people are feared dead as floods strike the south-west of the country.

11 April 1930,

New York Scientists predict that man will land on the Moon by the year 2050.

11 July 1930,

Chicago: 72 people die in a heat wave.

28 August 1930,

UK: 34 people have died in a heat wave: temperatures in London soar to 94 degrees F (34 degrees C).

13 November 1930,

France: 40 people are killed in a landslide in Lyons.

6 February 1931,

Washington: The Senate agrees to $20 million aid for drought victims in the South and Mid-West.

3 August 1931,

China: Hundreds die when a dam on the River Yangtse Kiang near Hankow bursts during a Typhoon.

17 August 1931,

UK: 14 die as gales and floods hit the country.

November 1931,

China: Central China floods. The human deaths are estimated 257,000–436,000

23 August 1933,

US: Chesapeake Bay Hurricane of 1933-A powerful Cape Verde Storm that reached Category Four strength at one point before weakening to Category Two strength. The storm ended up causing 79 million dollars in damage according to 1969 estimates, and left some 18 people dead. It also knocked out service to about 79,000 telephones as well as uprooted some 600 trees in Virginia Beach. The storm also set a record for storm surge with one that was 9.8 feet above normal in spots.

11 September 1931,

British Honduras: Over 700 deaths are reported when the colony is lashed by 100 mph winds.

28 August 1933,

UK: Drought threatens as the temperature touches 90 degrees F (32 degrees C).

4 September 1933,

UK: Forest fires rage through Dorset and Hampshire following recent dry weather.

10 September 1933,

More fires raged across southern England and Wales; Four Square miles of acres of Epping blazed out of control as fire men, soldiers and Sunday picnickers tried to beat back the flames with branches torn from trees. Near Monmouth Last night 100-feet flames lit up vast areas of burning Crown woodland. Two cars were burnt out in the New Forrest, but, astonishingly, there are no reports of deaths. The fires follow a month-long heat wave, with temperatures of up to 90 degrees F (32 degrees C).

12 September 1933,

UK: Rainfall ends the recent drought and puts out the forest fires.

16 September 1933,

US: Major Hurricane of September, 1933 -1933 was a very active year for tropical storms and hurricanes with 21 named storms, and 10 of them becoming hurricanes. In addition to the Great Chesapeake Hurricane of 1933, the Mid-Atlantic was hit by another hurricane almost exactly a month to the day later when a Category Three storm emerged from a disturbance in the Bahamas, and came up the coast to make landfall at Cape Lookout, North Carolina. The storm ended up causing about a fraction of the damage caused by the Chesapeake Bay storm. Only about 2,000 telephones were knocked out by the storm, and only two people died in Virginia.

25 February 1934,

US: 23 are reported dead after tornadoes sweep through southern states.

7 April 1934,

Norway: 57 are feared dead when a cliff crumbles, plunging two towns into the sea.

2 June 1934,

Washington: $6,000 million aid is voted for farmers in drought-stricken areas.

21 June 1934,

US A heat wave in the Mid-West kills 206 people in three days.

21 September 1934,

Japan: Up to 1,500 people are reported dead after a typhoon strikes the centre of the country.

7 April 1935,

US: Tornadoes kill 26 and injure 150 in the state of Mississippi.

11 April 1935,

The dust storm that swept across the USA’s “Bread Basket” created a staggering trail of destruction. Kansas, Colorado, Wyoming, Okalahoma, Texas and New Mexico were all affected. Increasingly severe dust storms are hanging like a black scourge over half the country, wiping out millions of dollars’ worth of crops, forcing thousands to flee their homes and paralysing all activity in some districts. While humans can protect themselves with masks during a storm, livestock suffer miserably. The incidence of dust pneumonia among children is growing. Little relief is in sight, as dust piles up inside houses; schools and business are closed; traffic is stopped and bereaved families cannot bury their dead. In Texas, even the birds are afraid to fly.

1 July 1935,

Japan: 227 die in floods.

5 August 1935,

Brilliant sunshine lured more Britons to the coast and countryside than on any previous Bank Holiday. So many people poured into Brighton – police estimated there were 500,000 day visitors – that in places the shingle was invisible beneath the bodies.

13 August 1935,

Italy: 1,000 are reported killed when a dam bursts at Oveda.

29 August 1935,

US: Labor Day Hurricane of 1935–The most powerful hurricane to make landfall in the United States. A very small storm, this Category Five Hurricane tore through the Florida Keys with 180 mph winds, and a low pressure of 26.35 inches of Hg.

3 September 1935,

US: Over 200 are reported dead when a hurricane hits Florida.

20 October 1935,

UK: 11 people die in a 92 mph gale.

22 January 1937,

US: 150,000 are reported homeless when the Ohio River floods killing 16.

26 January 1937,

US: Cincinnati is paralysed as the Ohio flood death toll mounts to 135; 750,000 are reported homeless.

3 September 1937,

Hong Kong: 300 are reported dead after a typhoon strikes the colony.

10 December 1937,

Glasgow: 34 die and 92 are injured when an express train crashes in a blizzard.

11 July 1938,

Eskimos in the Arctic complain of a heat wave: it is 67 degrees F (19C).

21 September 1938,

US:Long Island Express of 1938–A classic east coast hurricane, this Category Three storm moved rapidly from Cape Hatteras, North Carolina into New England in a matter of just six hours killing 600 people.

21 October 1938,

Tokyo: 226 people are reported killed in a typhoon.


17 January 1940,

UK: The Thames freezes for the first time as a cold wave strikes Europe.
19 January 1940,

Finland: The Russo-Finnish winter war; the intense Cold – in Karelia it is 57 degrees below zero – has stopped all action on all fronts, and an appalling number of troops on both sides have been frozen to death.

27 January 1940,

UK: The worst storm of the Century sweeps the country.

30 April 1940,

Norway: Snow has been falling heavily in the region, and this has delayed the landing of British troops, who are not equipped for arctic operations.

6 July 1941,

15 hours 48 minutes of sunshine make this the capital’s sunniest day of the century.

21 November 1941,

USSR: With the prevailing temperature 27 degrees below freezing point, the unprepared Germans are seizing the warm winter clothing of the Russian people in the occupied territory.

14 September 1944,

US: Great Hurricane of September, 1944– Cape Henry in Virginia was hit with sustained winds of 134 mph, and gusts up to 150 mph. Meanwhile, in Norfolk, winds reached close to hurricane force while gusts went up to 90 mph. The powerful storm caused tremendous damage along the coast from North Carolina to New England with some 41,000 buildings damaged, and a death toll of 390 people. The storm cost some $100 million dollars in damage including $25 million in New Jersey alone, where some 300 homes were destroyed on Long Beach Island.

1 April 1946,

US: Tidal wave in the Pacific kills 300 in Hawaii, and hit Alaska and the west coast.

21 November 1946,

Widespread flooding occurs after the eighth successive day of rain.

29 January 1947,

UK: Chaos and power cuts spread as freezing weather grips Britain; the temperature today fell to -16 degrees F.

12 February 1947,

UK: Heavy snowstorms and subzero temperatures are combining with serious fuel shortage to bring Britain to its economic knees. Over four million workers have been made idle by power cuts. Non-stop blizzards have stopped all shipping in the channel. The Great North road is blocked for 22 miles by ten-foot drifts.

22 February 1947,

The weather has led to the cancellation of 59 football matches so far this month.

26 February 1947,

UK: Domestic fuel ration seems likely as the freezing weather continues.

3 March 1947,

UK: 800,000 return to work as some power is restored.

6 March 1947,

UK: 300 roads are blocked and 15 towns cut off by the snow as the appalling weather continues.

March 1947,

UK: Like a great deal of the country, the town of Shrewsbury has suffered in the floods after the big freeze.

2 April 1947,

UK: Recent flooding has killed two million sheep and damaged 500,000 acres of wheat.

8 August 1948,

UK: At least 12 die when a 70 mph gale hits Brittan.

14 September 1948,

Washington: Scientists warn that the world is outgrowing its food supply.

3 January 1949,

US: Tornadoes sweep Arkansas, leaving 41 dead.


6 April 1950.

Australia: The 1950 rainfall records for the Australian states of New South Wales and Queensland  reported probably the most remarkable record high rainfall totals ever recorded anywhere in the continent. The extremely widespread flooding that resulted from record rains and unusually low evaporation caused at least 26 deaths on the North Coast during the winter.

7 September 1950,

US: Hurricane Easy – Easy was one of the worst storms to hit Cedar Key since the late 1800s. This storm, which did a loop around the West Coast of Florida twice, had maximum sustained winds of 125 mph, a minimum pressure of 28.30 inches of Hg, and brought an amazing 38.7 inches of rain over two days to Yankeetown, Florida

13 September 1950,

US: Hurricane King-Another powerful storm in 1950, this particular hurricane affected the Miami area in October of that year. It was a compact, but very powerful hurricane It carved a path of destruction some 7 to 10 miles wide, but had wind gusts as high as 150 mph, Across the United States, the hurricane left 11 fatalities and $32 million in damage.

17 October 1950,

Cuba: Hurricane King crossed Cuba on October 17, causing seven deaths and $2 million in damage.

20 February 1951,

UK: This month proved the wettest February since 1870.
22 March 1952,

US: Over 200 are reported killed and 2,500 hurt as a tornado sweeps six mid-west states.

16 August 1952,

UK: With warning a large part of north Devon was hit by a disastrous flood earlier today. Thirty-six people are feared dead and thousands have been made homeless in the resort of Lynmouth, which was devastated when rivers burst their banks and swept down surrounding hills. The torrent swamped the area so quickly that the victims had no time to flee as their houses were buried beneath the unremitting flow of mud, rocks and debris. About 250 square miles were flooded by freak storms. Nine inches of rain fell yesterday. Three boy scouts were among the first to drown when their camp was hit by a mud river. A postman on his rounds also died. The list of missing includes two girl hikers.

19 August 1952

UK: Housing minister Harold Macmillan says flood stricken Lynmouth like “the road to Ypres”

22 August 1952,

UK: 22 people have died in the Lynmouth disaster; 11 are still missing.

January 1951,

Scotland: Storms destroy trees worth more than £3 million.

3 February 1953,

Holland: Over 1,000 deaths are reported after dykes burst, causing widespread flooding.

3 February 1953,

UK: Hurricane winds combined with high tides to bring disaster to Britain’s east coast. As sea defences collapsed from Lincolnshire in the north to Kent in the south, at least 280 people are known to have been drowned and thousands more made homeless. A major rescue operation is under way to save hundreds of people trapped on roof tops by an eight foot wall of water, some in villages more than five miles inland. Damage is estimated in the hundreds of millions of pounds. In Essex, Canvey Island is said to be devastated, with 125 people drowned and 500 missing. Thirteen thousand inhabitants have been evacuated and 150 taken to hospital. Near Clacton, holiday Chalets were under12 feet of water and people were falling of rooftops into the floods from exhaustion. Heavy causalities are reported from Norfolk where the death toll is know to number 60, including 12 American service men drowned near Hunstanton. Mapplethorpe and Sutton-on-Sea have been evacuated, with hundreds still awaiting rescue; in Suffolk, boats were rowed into a church to rescue 40 trapped children. The flooding has come hard on the heels of another recent natural disaster – the January storms in Scotland which destroyed trees worth more than £3 million.

9 February 1953,

UK: 283 are known to have died in the East Coast floods; 50 are still missing.

19 February 1953,

London: Home secretary Maxwell-Fyfe puts flood damage at £40 million.

13th August 1953,

US: Hurricane Barbara- Struck the North Carolina coast between Morehead City and Ocracoke Island on August 13th, 1953 as a Category One Hurricane with gusts up to 110 mph (175 km/h), and left 9 dead and damages over $1 million in 1953 U.S. dollars.

23 October 1953,

Italy: Heavy flooding wreaks at least 12 villages in the south of the country.

31 January 1954,

UK: 23 people are reported to have died in accidents on frozen Ice as wintry weather grips Britain.

25 August 1954,

US: Hurricane Carol Winds at Hatteras were between 90 and 100 mph, Carol intensified to reach winds of 105 mph (169 km/h), but weakened as its motion turned to a Northwest drift. An estimated at $250,000 was left in the storm’s wake.

7 September 1954,

US: Hurricane Edna followed on the heels of Carol, and had a very similar track to Carol’s as it passed the Carolinas offshore. Edna ended up doing much more damage in New England after making landfall in Long Island. Damage estimates exceeded $40 million, and 21 people were killed.

5 October 1954,

US: Hurricane Hazel the deadliest and costliest hurricane of the 1954 Atlantic hurricane season. The storm killed as many as 1,000 people in Haiti before striking the United States near the border between North and South Carolina, as a Category 4 hurricane. After causing 95 fatalities in the US, Hazel struck Canada as an extra-tropical storm, raising the death toll by 81 people, mostly in Toronto. As a result of the high death toll and the damage Hazel caused, its name was retired from use for North Atlantic hurricanes.

1 February 1955,

US: Tornadoes kill 29 in the state of Mississippi.

25 February 1955,

UK: 70 main roads remain impassable because of snow and ice.

2 February 1955,

200 die in flooding which leaves 44,000 homeless; 300,000 sheep die in New South Wales.

3 August 1955,

US: Hurricane Connie was the first in a series of hurricanes to strike North Carolina during the 1955 Atlantic hurricane season. Connie struck as a Category 1, causing major flooding and inflicting extensive damage to the Outer Banks and inland to Raleigh In total, damage was at least $15 million and there was 41 fatalities reported.

7 August 1955,

US: Hurricane Diane was one of three hurricanes to hit North Carolina during the 1955 Atlantic hurricane season, striking an area that had been hit by Hurricane Connie five days earlier. Diane’s winds rapidly decreased so much that it was no longer classified even as a tropical storm, but Diane added six to sixteen inches of rain on areas already sodden from Connie, leading to extensive flooding in northern Virginia, Maryland, eastern Pennsylvania, New Jersey, southern New York, and southern New England. The storm caused about 200 deaths

10 September 1955,

US: Hurricane Ione caused $600 million in damage, much of it to crops across North Carolina. As a result of Ione’s impacts seven people lost their lives.

6 August 1956,

China: Reports say 2,000 people are believed dead after a typhoon struck Chekiang province last week.

25 June 1957,

US: Hurricane Audrey A rare early season major hurricane, this storm struck in Texas and Louisiana in June, 1957. It was the most powerful hurricane ever in the month of June, and it rapidly intensified over the Gulf of Mexico before making landfall leaving many caught off guard. Audrey left $147 million in damage and 431 fatalities. The devastation from Hurricane Audrey was the worst since the Great New England Hurricane of 1938.

29 January 1959,

UK: The worst winter fog since 1952 cripples transport throughout Britain.

27 March,

Madagascar: 3,300 are reported dead after the Island was hit by a devastating hurricane.

10 August 1959,

UK: Violent Storms lash the south of England.

21 August 1959,

London floods cause chaos in the city as three quarters of an inch of rain falls in one hour.

9 December 1959,

UK: North Sea gales claim 27 lives as two ships sink.

3 December 1959,

French Riviera: 300 people are feared dead after a dam collapsed and washed away part of a town on the French Riviera. A 15-foot high wall of water, mud and boulders swept down the valley into Frejus, where people warned two days ago that floodwater from recent storms had caused cracks in the bottom of the Malpasset dam.


2 April 1960,

US: The first weather satellite has been launched by the United States. Called Tiros 1 it has already sent back pictures from a height of 450 miles showing the cloud cover over the north-eastern United States and part of Canada. The 270-pound Tiros 1 is a proto type for weather satellites that will eventually give round-the-clock coverage of the entire globe.

29 August 1960,

US: Hurricane Donna – Donna had wind gusts ranging between 175 and 200 mph, a minimum central pressure of 27.46 inches, and a 13 foot storm surge. Its total damage cost was over $900 million 1960 and left 364 people dead.

9 October 1960,

UK: Southern England is hit by the worst flooding since 1953.

4 November 1960,

UK: Severe flooding causes chaos in south east England.

3 September 1961,

US: Hurricane Carla struck the Texas coast as a Category 4 hurricane, becoming one of the most powerful storms to ever strike the United States. Hurricane Carla was the second most intense storm to ever strike the Texas coast. The storm caused over $2 billion in damages, but due to the evacuation of over 500,000 residents the death toll was only 43.

27 October 1961,

US: Struck the then coastal capital of Belize, Belize City on Halloween in 1961. Hattie was the second or two Category Five Hurricanes from that season. Leaving some 319 people dead and some $60 million dollars in damage, Hattie devastated the Belize capital forcing government officials to move government offices and buildings inland to the city of Belmopan.

11 January 1962,

Peru: Over 3,000 people are feared dead after a landslide.

16 February 1962,

UK: At least 11 are feared dead after fierce gales.

6 October 1963,

Haiti: 4,000 are feared dead after a hurricane strikes.

19 November 1963,

Haiti: 500 are feared dead in floods and landslides.

20 August 1964,

US: Hurricane Cleo, This compact yet powerful hurricane travelled through the Caribbean Sea and later hit Florida before moving offshore Georgia into the Carolinas, killing 217 people and causing over $1 billion in normalized damages. Major damage was seen as far north as east-central Florida, with the heaviest rains falling along the immediate coast of the South-East United States into south-east Virginia.

28 August 1964,

US: Hurricane Dora was the first tropical cyclone on record to make landfall over the extreme north-East coast of Florida. Dora was also the first storm to produce hurricane force winds to Jacksonville, Florida, in the almost 80 years of record keeping. Dora killed five people and left over $200 million in damage, mainly in Florida.

29 September 1964,

India: One thousand people are feared dead after a reservoir bursts.

24 December 1964,

Indian Ocean: A hurricane kills 7,000 in Ceylon and the Indian Province of Madras.

12 May 1965,

East Pakistan: Over 10,000 are reported dead after a violent cyclone.

2 August 1965,

France: Forest Fires sweep the Riviera.

27 August 1965,

US: Hurricane Betsy; A Category Three Hurricane struck South Florida, Louisiana and High winds in the Bahamas caused significant damage throughout the island chain. 76 people are reported dead and $1.42 billion in damage.

1 November 1965,

UK: Seven die as hurricane force winds batter Britain.

September 21, 1966,

US:  Hurricane Inez-Known as “The Crazy One,” Inez was a deadly, destructive, powerful and very long-lived Cape Verde-type hurricane. Inez carved an erratic path of death and destruction from the Caribbean to Florida, and to Mexico in October, 1966. It left some 1,500 people dead, and produced millions of dollars in damage with top winds of approximately 190 mph.

25 September 1966,

Japan: 1974 are reported dead after a typhoon.

4 November 1966,

Italy: At least 21 deaths reported in floods; Florence is cut off.

8 December 1966,

Greece: 280 are feared lost when a ferry sinks in a storm.

5 September 1967,

US: Hurricane Beulah was a Category Four Hurricane that hit Texas and produced some 150 tornadoes after making landfall. The most ever produced on record by a tropical system. Due to its slow movement over Texas, Beulah led to significant flooding. Throughout its path, at least 688 people were killed.

15 January 1968,

UK: 20 die as hurricane force winds lash Scotland.

10 March 1968,

New Zealand: 200 are feared dead when a car ferry capsizes in Wellington Harbour in a severe storm.

4 November 1968,

Italy: Over 100 people are known to have died in flooding in the north of the country.

14 August 1969,

US: Hurricane Camille kills 259 people and causes $1.42 billion in damages.

31 July 1970,

US: Hurricane Celia kills 27, 466 people were injured, 9,000 homes were destroyed, 14,000 homes were significantly damaged, and another 41,000 suffered minor damage.
21 October 1970,

Philippines: Nearly 800 people are believed to have died in a typhoon.

20 November 1970,

East Pakistan: It is feared that more than 150,000 people died in the typhoon and tidal wave which last week brought death and disaster to East Pakistan. Only now as the waters recede, is it possible to see fully the devastating effect the storm has had. The tidal wave, as high as a two story building, has changed the map of the delta, sweeping away islands and making others. Whole communities have been destroyed and all their people and livestock killed.

1 November 1971,

India: Over 5,000 are reported killed and a million homes destroyed when a cyclone hits the state of Orissa.

14 June 1972,

US: Hurricane Agnes; Overall, Agnes caused 128 fatalities and nearly $2.1 billion  in damage

1 August 1972,

Manila: 356 feared dead in severe flooding.

19 October 1973,

Spain: 500 feared dead after severe floods.

11 August 1974,

Bangladesh: 2,500 feared dead and ten million homeless after monsoon floods half the country.

20 September 1974,

Honduras: Cyclone Fifi kills 10,000.

13 October 1974,

India: Worst feminine in 20 years feared.

7 August 1975,

London: The capital has its hottest day for 35 years with temperatures of 32 degrees C.

13 September 1975,

US: Hurricane Eloise causes $560 million in damage as well as 80 deaths.

2 January 1976,

UK: Hurricane-force winds up to 105 mph cause widespread havoc, leaving 22 dead.

2 June 1976,

London: The city has a record temperature of 95 degrees F (35C).

14 July 1976,

London: Publication of the Drought Bill to tackle Britain’s worst drought in 250 years.

6 August 1976,

US: Hurricane Belle causes 5 deaths as well as $100 million in damage.
31 August 1976,

UK: There had not been a summer like it this century; temperatures soared and all parts of the UK basked in record hours of sunshine. Suddenly it was time for barbecues, bikinis in Hyde Park, endless queues for ice creams and cold drinks … and drought. Industry suffered water rationing, and several companies in the Midlands were forced to curtail their working week. Forest fires raged in the south – and fire men watched impotently as hundreds of acres of the New Forest and other woodland were destroyed. With no sign of a break in the weather, the government was becoming increasingly worried by a potentially disastrous national water shortage. Reservoirs were drying up and their clay bottoms were cracking in the heat. Householders were advised to use their bath water to water their gardens, to avoid over-flushing their lavatories and to place bricks in their cisterns. Dirty cars were patriotic and draconian penalties were introduced for the use of garden hoses. The avuncular sports Minister Denis Howell, was created “Minister for Drought” and warned that unless consumption was cut by a half all over Britain, the country would almost certainly face water rationing until Christmas. Then, today the rains came and Britons could complain, once more, about their awful climate.

10 October 1977,

Italy: 16 deaths are reported after three days of violent storms.

12 January 1978,

UK: 17 seamen are feared dead in severe gales.

20 February 1978,

UK: South-west England suffers it’s worst blizzard for many years.

8 August 1978,

Europe: The continent is lashed by gales and torrential rain.

22 July 1979,

Indonesia: 750 are feared dead after a tidal wave hits the Island of Lomblen.

14 August 1979,

UK: Fourteen yachtsmen died as savage Atlantic storms brought havoc to the Fastnet international sailing race today. At least 25 of the 330 yachts between the southern Irish coast and Cornwall were sunk or disabled. Lifeboats, trawlers and tugs joined with helicopters in a huge rescue in force 11 hurricane winds, saving 125 yachtsmen. Yet some crews, from 18 nations, in the larger craft, were continuing the race. Bottles of champagne for toasting the winners of the Admiral’s Cup were instead handed out among relatives to ease their grief.

25 August 1979,

US: Hurricane David 175 mph Category 5 hurricane causes 2,068+deaths as well as $1.54 billion in damage.


12 June 1980,

Africa: Two years of drought, combined with at least half a dozen wars, have led to wide spread crop failures and a massive refugee problem. The famine area extends from northern Kenya, through Uganda, to Somalia, Ethiopia, Sudan and Djibouti.

1 February 1983,

London: The Thames Flood Barrier is raised for the first time in a flood alert.

13 January 1984,

UK: At least six people die in hurricane winds.

5 March 1984,

UK: Scientist warn of the Green House Effect; Concern is growing that carbon dioxide, produced by burning fossil fuels, will affect the climate. Carbon dioxide acts like the glass of a green house, trapping the suns heat, and the amount in the atmosphere is growing. The latest pointer to its effects comes from scientists at the University of East Anglia who have found that 1981 and last year were among the warmest on record. A warmer climate could damage agriculture and cause flooding by melting the polar ice caps.

3 September 1984, Up to 1,000 are feared dead in a typhoon.

January 1985,

Nice: The Arctic weather puts the beach at Nice under a blanket of snow.

28 May 1985.

India: Thousands of bodies are floating in the Bay of Bengal following the Cyclone and tidal wave which battered the coast of Bangladesh three days ago.

19 July 1985,

Italy: Over 260 people are feared dead after floods from a burst dam engulfed a village in the Italian Dolomites.

11 August 1985,

UK: 110 yachts are forced to retire from the Fastnet race owing to fierce gales.

2 February 1986,

Europe: Over 34 deaths are reported as blizzards and freezing weather sweeps much of Western Europe.

24 March 1986,

UK: Over eight are killed as hurricane force winds sweep across Britain.

22 April 1986,

London: Flooding damages treasures in the Victoria and Albert Museum.

26 July 1987,

Greece: Over 700 die from heat wave in Greece. Hospitals and military clinics were struggling to handle an influx of casualties as temperatures continue to soar.

16 September 1987,

Montreal: More than 70 nations have agreed on measures to reduce the threat to the earth’s ozone layer. This layer, high in the atmosphere, screens out harmful ultra-violet radiation from the sun. Evidence is growing that it is affected by long-lived chemicals called chlorofluoro-carbons, used as propellants for aerosols, and in refrigerators and air conditioners. Under the new agreement, drawn up at a conference in Montreal, use of chlorofluorocarbons will be frozen at existing levels right away and reduced by half by 1999.

16 October 1987,

UK: Yesterday evening, a viewer called the BBC and asked the weatherman if there was going to be a hurricane. He laughed off the suggestion. Within hours, south-east England was being battered by winds gusting up to 110 mph causing greater havoc than any other storm this century. Northern France was also lashed by the Hurricane-force winds. In England the storm has killed at least 17 people and left a £300 million trail of destruction from Cornwall to East Anglia. Hotels and houses collapsed. Railway lines and roads are blocked by thousands of fallen trees, with no services running south of Rugby or Peterborough. A 6,000-ton ship was washed on to the beach in Sussex; and most of south east was without electricity for at least sometime. Many areas are likely to be with out power for several days to come. In London, the fire brigade dealt with a record 6,000 emergency calls in 24 hours. Kew Gardens lost a third of its trees. Sevenoaks in Kent lost six of the oaks which gave it its name; and casualty wards in every London hospital were filled with casualties from flying slates and other debris. The Meteorological Office is under fire from both the public and politicians for its failure to predict the hurricane. A computer misreading is being blamed for the poor forecast. “We could have got it better,” the Meteorological Office spokesman said.

18 October 1987,

UK: 250,000 homes in southern England still have no electricity after the storm.

19 October 1987,

UK: Four die when a train falls off a bridge swept away by swollen river in Wales.

2 August 1988,

China: Floods kill at least 250 people in the east.

11 August 1988,

Sudan: 13 hours of rain lead to flooding which is said to make 1.5 million homeless.

4 September 1988,


4 November 1988,

China: Warning is giving that 20 million peasants are at risk following droughts and floods.

2 December 1988,

India: A cyclone has killed over 1,200.

26 December 1988,

UK: Three North Sea oilfields shut down when a storage vessel breaks free in gale-force winds.



US: Storm hits New England as a Category 1 hurricane and causes $1 billion dollars in damage.

16-28 August 1992,

US: Hurricane Andrew.


US: The Great Mississippi Flood.


24 December 2004,

US: A freak snowstorm hits the southernmost parts of Texas and Louisiana.

August 2005,

US: Hurricane Katrina.

6 February 2008,

US: Deadly tornado outbreak affecting the Southern United States and the lower Ohio Valley from February 5 to February 6. With more than 80 confirmed tornados and 58 deaths

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NGRIP Ice Core [400] Year Annual 10Be Graphs

Graphs showing the 10Be concentration and sunspot number relationship.

Ngrip 10be 1


Ngrip 10be 3

Ngrip 10be 4

Ngrip 10be 5

Ngrip 10be 6

Ngrip 10be 7

Ngrip 10be 8

Berggren A.-M., et al. 2009.
NGRIP Ice Core 600 Year Annual 10Be Data. 
IGBP PAGES/World Data Center for Paleoclimatology 
Data Contribution Series # 2009-154. 
NOAA/NCDC Paleoclimatology Program, Boulder CO, USA.

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200 year reconstruction of historical Solar Cycles 1100-1300

This is a preliminary reconstruction of historical solar maximum and minimums for 1100-1300. It shows a uniformed intensity (or sunspot number) and my estimate of the dates when solar maximum and solar minimum occurred.

Reconstruction of solar maximum and minimums 1100-1300

Currently I’ve compiled the dates for a historical reconstruction of solar maximum and minimums for 1100-2013 and it should be completed in a few weeks. There’s a very interesting period between 1624 and 1708 which covers the Maunder Minimum, in the data during this period there appears to be an extra solar minimum, this suggests that the sun’s magnetic polarities did not flip, resulting in a prolonged period of solar minimum, possibly lasting as long as 33 years.

Solar cycle reconstruction 1100-1300 bar.jpg

When I completed this reconstruction, I compared it with historical naked eye observations and there is a very high degree of agreement between the timing of large sunspot groups being observed and the reconstruction of solar maximums.

The next stage will be to estimate the sunspot number values, there are two techniques I’m working on which I will be testing, this takes time as the values will have to be in monthly averages, this adds up to 2400 values to workout for over 200 years of data, gather and plot, and up to 4800 values for the two different data techniques.

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Interesting trend between the Sun, Uranus and Jupiter

I have found an interesting trend in the difference of change between the two orbital ellipses of Uranus and Jupiter. The red trend-line is the difference of change between the two orbital ellipses of Uranus and Jupiter. The blue line is the trend of sunspot area numbers.

The red trend-line is the difference of change between the two orbital ellipses of Uranus and Jupiter. The blue line is the trend of sunspot area numbers.

The red trend-line is the difference of change between the two orbital ellipses of Uranus and Jupiter. The blue line is the trend of sunspot area numbers.

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Sunspot Increse in Southern Hemisphere

We have now entered into the second half of Solar Cycle 24 and as expected the Suns magnetic field has recently flipped.

During the first half of the current solar cycle solar physicists noted; that sun spot activity on the suns Northern hemisphere had increased resulting in the highest sunspot number of SC24 during November of 2011, while the southern hemisphere had less sunspot activity,  currently the complete opposite is occurring (see latest HMII below), the southern hemisphere is showing an Increase in spot activity while the northern hemisphere is showing less spot activity, this should no doubt produce a second high peak of sunspot numbers for SC24 but it’s not expected to be much higher than the peak during the first half of the solar cycle.

Overall SC24 is continuing to be a very weak solar cycle, correctly predicted by Leif Svalgaard, Edward W. Cliver and Yohsuke Kamide in the GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS back in 2004.


Sunspot cycle 24: Smallest cycle in 100 years?

GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 32, L01104, doi:10.1029/2004GL021664, 2005

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Another Blank Sun At Solar Maximum

Continuing the trend of a very weak solar cycle 24, the Sun is blank again at solar maximum, below is the latest HMI Intensitygram from the 8th of September 2013.


Blank Sun at Solar Maximum

Blank Sun at Solar Maximum

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